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Évaluation de la condition physique de la clientèle en santé mentale

Par Steeven Bernier, inf., M. Sc.

|
01 mai 2018
Évaluation de la condition physique de la clientèle en santé mentale
Crédit photo :  ImageFlow / Shutterstock

Bien que les maladies chroniques physiques touchent l’ensemble de la population, certaines clientèles ayant un trouble mental, particulièrement un trouble mental sévère et persistant, sont davantage touchées

Objectifs d'apprentissage

  • Se conscientiser face à l’importance d’intervenir sur les saines habitudes de vie auprès des personnes atteintes d’un problème de santé mentale..

  • Comprendre pourquoi la clientèle ayant un problème de santé mentale est exposée au risque de comorbidité touchant sa santé physique.
  • Identifier des interventions concernant les habitudes de vie.

Les problèmes de santé physique découlant de mauvaises habitudes de vie sont de plus en plus fréquents partout dans le monde. Le Canada ne fait pas exception. Chaque année, au pays, plus des deux tiers des décès sont attribuables à quatre groupes de maladies chroniques : maladies cardiovasculaires, cancer, diabète et maladies respiratoires (Agence de la santé publique du Canada, 2017). Ces maladies chroniques sont causées notamment par des facteurs de risque évitables tels le manque d’activité physique, la mauvaise alimentation et le tabagisme,
ainsi que par des déterminants environnementaux qui soustendent les pratiques personnelles d’hygiène de vie. L’obésité pouvant résulter de mauvaises habitudes de vie constitue en elle-même un facteur de risque de certaines maladies chroniques comme les maladies cardiovasculaires et le diabète de type 2, ce qui peut entraîner une diminution de l’espérance de vie (Hu, 2008; Peto et al., 2010) ainsi que de la qualité de vie (Kim et Kawachi, 2008). L’augmentation du taux d’obésité dans la dernière décennie n’a épargné aucun groupe de la population, quels que soient leurs caractéristiques individuelles et leur milieu de vie (LeBodo et al., 2016).

Bien que les maladies chroniques physiques touchent l’ensemble de la population, certaines clientèles ayant un trouble mental, particulièrement un trouble mental sévère et persistant, sont davantage touchées. La littérature mentionne que de 20 à 50 % des personnes vivant avec un problème de santé mentale présentent aussi des problèmes de santé physique ou de dépendance (Fleury et al., 2008; Schmitz et al., 2007). Chez les personnes ayant un trouble mental sévère et persistant, cette proportion varie plutôt de 50 à 90 % (Robson et Gray, 2007; Viron
et al., 2012).

 

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